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January 27, 2020
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The M. Project

Artificial Empathy (AE)
Artificial Decision (AD)
M. Archtecture
M. Training
M. Reconstruction

The H. Project


The Bubble Theory
The Chinese Way
Logical Creative Thinking
The Enlightened


Penn State
H.E.N. 有知庐





By bubble, I refer to the hundreds or thousands of singular urges that each of us harbor inside our minds (see my Theory of Intraperson Games), and how they bubble up from unconscious to conscious, from individual to society, and influence how we live our life and how the society evolves. The core idea is described in the short book titled The Bubble Theory.

A key implication of the theory is on the discourse currently referred to as sustainable development. The Bubble Theory recommends that we should use The concept of Fair Development (FD) to replace the concept of Sustainable Development (SD).

In my 2015 article (Fair Wealth), I propose and discuss the idea of Fair Wealth (FW) as part of the broader Fair Development paradigm, and highlight the concept (enlightened) Spoiler and its role in the creation of Fair Wealth.

As of January 2018, we have released two FW Honor Lists in China, one for firms and the other for individuals. More info on these lists can all be found online or from our research institute at Fudan (iSIG).


   The Bubble Theory - Towards a Framework of Enlightened Needs and Fair Development, Ding, M. Springer, 2013.

The term sustainable development (SD) has now become a ubiquitous idea, philosophy, and guiding principle in our society. Governments talk about it, businesses talk about it, NGOs talk about it, individuals talk about it, and even the education institutions talk about graduating young people with sustainability in their DNA. Despite its noble origin, sustainable development is a concept embodies compromise. This compromise led to a term that is devoid of scientific foundation and actionable guidelines. In this book, I want to achieve the following objectives. First, construct a comprehensive theory, the Bubble Theory, which is built upon sound scientific foundation and is the driving force behind recent human development trends, where SD is a special case in the theory. Second, propose and discuss the concept of onerization, and posit it is the catalyst for the recent changes in the human society as captured by the Bubble Theory. Third, propose and endorse two key concepts from the Bubble Theory, Enlightened Needs (EN) and Fair Development (FD), as substitutes for SD, which, among other things, are actionable. Fourth, advocate private firms should treat EN and FD as business opportunities and attempt to serve and profit. Fifth, advise public institutions, governments in particular, to address the ENs of its people and select and implement specific forms of FD. The book is organized into six parts. The first part includes a short review, motivations, as well as gist of the Bubble Theory and onerization. The next three parts are the three layers of the Bubble Theory: the Symbiotic Duo discusses the symbiotic relationship between the human species and human individuals that are the foundation of everything else; the Enlightened Needs discusses the desires of individuals that originated from the symbiotic relationships; Human Development Principles talk about how individuals ENs get bubble up and form social norm, and become principles that society adopts as the rules for its development. The last two parts are prescriptive in nature, I discuss the roles of private and public sectors.


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